There are more than billion people in the world today who experience disability, as per the first ever world report on disability (produced jointly by the World Health Organization and the World Bank). The older concept of disability was based on ‘impairment’ and ‘handicap’, however, the new definition also include activity limitations or restrictions that allow full participation in society which could be based on attitudinal and environmental barriers ( as per the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) Disability and Health).
The neurological disabilities which are unique and impact quality life of individuals with day-to-day functioning such as mobility, disturbance of cognition and behavior, pain, altered consciousness, bladder and bowel dysfunction etc. were long overlooked in the disability status.
In December 2016, the new bill was passed “The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill – 2016” which replaced the PwD Act, 1995. The types of disabilities have been increased from 7 to 21 including autism; low vision and blindness; cerebral palsy; deaf blindness; haemophilia;
hearing impairment; leprosy; intellectual disability; mental illness; muscular dystrophy; multiple sclerosis; learning disability; speech and language disability; sickle cell disease; thalassemia; chronic neurological conditions; and multiple disability.
Anyone who is suffering from a disability should be aware of their rights and the privileges offered by the Government. Disability certificate is an effective tool to avail such benefits which are offered in account of various disabilities. Railway fare concessions, free travels, assistance in education, incentives, free prosthetic legs, financial assistance etc. are some of the entitlements given to the people with disabilities.
An Indian citizen with more than 40% of disability can apply for the certificate, but disabilities like autism and learning disorders are excluded from the certificate. The certificate is valid for a period of five years. Candidate is required to have birth certificate, residence proof and the medical certificates provided by the medical professionals.
For acquiring a certificate, you need to visit district hospital and apply for the certificate. If you are not in a position to reach hospitals, you have an online option, get registered on the official website and submit online application http://www.odisha.gov.in/disabilityportal/
Once you get the certificate it’s crucial for you to know the given benefits and entitles to the disabled, which can easily be facilitated using the certificate.
Income tax deduction: Person with special needs are eligible for income tax deduction under section 80 U.
Disability pension: People who is 18 or above and suffering from 80% disability or living in poverty are entitled to the disability pension under Gandhi National Disability Scheme.
Train concessions: Person with disability are entitled to 75% concession on railway fares.
Airlines concessions: Indian airlines provide 50% of concession to blind person on single journeys
Employment: 3% quota in gov jobs. The ministry of petroleum and natural gas has reserved 7.5% seats for the handicapped and blind candidates in the dealership agencies, though they are not eligible for the distribution.
Education: Any child age from 6 to 12 with benchmark disability will have a right to free education.
Discrimination against disabled: If a disabled face any harassment, guilty will be entitled to pay penalty of Rs. 5 lakh and imprisonment for 2 years.
Conveyance allowance: All central gov. employees who are blind or handicapped are granted conveyance at 5% of basic pay.